|Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi|
The Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK; Chinese: 汉语水平考试; pinyin: Hànyǔ Shuǐpíng Kǎoshì), translated as the Chinese Proficiency Test, is the People's Republic of China's standardized test of proficiency in PRC Standard Chinese (one of the two forms of Standard Chinese along with ROC Standard Chinese) for non-native speakers such as foreign students and overseas Chinese. The test is administered by Hanban, an agency of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China.
Development of the HSK test began in 1984 at Beijing Language and Culture University, and was officially made a national standardized test in 1992. By 2005, over 120 countries had participated as regular host sites and the tests had been taken around 100 million times (domestic ethnic minority candidates included). In 2011, Beijing International Chinese College became the first HSK testing center to conduct the HSK test online.
The HSK test is analogous to the English TOEFL, and an HSK certificate is valid without any limitation in China. The test aims to be a certificate of language proficiency for higher educational and professional purposes. It is not uncommon to refer to a standard or level of proficiency by the HSK level number, or score. For example, a job description might ask for foreign applicants with "HSK5 or better."
The HSK is administered solely in Mandarin and in simplified Chinese characters; however, if the exam is paper-based, the test-taker can choose to write the writing assignments in simplified or in traditional characters, at their discretion. The test can be either paper-based or Internet-based, depending on what the specific test center offers. With an Internet-based test, the writing part with characters (from HSK 3 on) is subjectively and slightly easier, as one types the pinyin and selects the right character from the list, while with a paper-based test, one must remember the characters, their strokes and their order, and write them out.
Test takers with outstanding results can win a scholarship for short-term language study in China.
In 2020, an internal Chinese academic paper discussed that the Chinese Proficiency Standards would undergo a change: a hybrid paradigm of "Three Stages and Nine Levels" characterized by all-in-one integration. The Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China announced further details regarding HSK 3.0 on April 1, 2021. Among the information shared was a wordlist for each individual stage, and a date for the introduction of the new test—July 1, 2021. As of April 2022 no HSK 3.0 tests have been rolled out and only a single preparation book for the basic levels has been published, additionally the HSK 2.0 test format is still in use. An update on the official HSK website suggests, that the April 2021 date only signified the start date for the conception of the new HSK 3.0. New practice materials for the intermediate and advanced levels are expected to be released in the third or fourth quarter of 2022. One of the main problems with the current HSK test is that it does not follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). For example, HSK 6 was nowhere close to Near Native C2 in English, and so on.
The new test is meant to follow the latest research in the field of language studies and testing. The basic levels (roughly corresponding to CEFR A1/A2) should test from 500 to 2245 words, the intermediate levels (roughly corresponding to CEFR B1/B2) from 3245 to 5456 words, the advanced levels (roughly corresponding to CEFR C1/C2) from about 6000 to 11000 words. Chinese Proficiency Grading Standards for International Chinese Language Education has provided a breakdown of the skills required for each level.
The intermediate levels should test the ability to understand slightly modified authentic materials or authentic materials written/spoken in a clear manner and intended for educated mother tongue speakers: materials concerning everyday topics, simple articles, simple commentaries and critiques found in newspapers and magazines.
The advanced levels should test the ability to understand longer, more complicated and abstract materials: extracts from authentic sources such as textbooks for Chinese university students, Chinese magazine and essays, extracts from modern Chinese literature, interviews and extracts from Chinese media. Moreover, Classical Chinese expressions and grammatical structures used in modern formal Chinese should be included too.
HSK 3.0 now also includes a focus on handwritten Chinese characters and translation, which was not included in HSK 2.0. Also there is a redistribution of words in each level. For instance, some words were previously grouped under Level 3, but is now under Level 1 in HSK 3.0.
The previous format was introduced in 2010, with a philosophy of testing "comprehensive language and communication ability". Most notable are the inclusion of written segments at all levels (not just in the Advanced levels as in the pre-2010 test), a reform of the ranking system, and the use of new question structures. Complete vocabulary lists, previous tests, and simulated tests are available as preparation materials. A minor update of the vocabulary lists was made in 2012.
(cumulative / new)
(cumulative / new)
|1||150||150||174||174||20 questions, 15 min||20 questions, 17 min||Not tested||Designed for learners who can understand and use some simple Chinese characters and sentences to communicate, and prepares them for continuing their Chinese studies. In HSK 1 all characters are provided along with pinyin.|
|2||300||150||348||174||35 questions, 25 min||25 questions, 22 min||Designed for learners who can use Chinese in a simple and direct manner, applying it in a basic fashion to their daily lives. In HSK 2 all characters are provided along with pinyin.|
|3||600||300||618||270||40 questions||30 questions||10 items||Designed for learners who can use Chinese to serve the demands of their personal lives, studies and work, and are capable of completing most of the communicative tasks they experience during their Chinese tour.|
|4||1200||600||1064||446||45 questions||40 questions||15 items||Designed for learners who can discuss a relatively wide range of topics in Chinese and are capable of communicating with Chinese speakers at a high standard.|
|5||2500||1300||1685||621||45 questions||45 questions||10 items||Designed for learners who can read Chinese newspapers and magazines, watch Chinese films and are capable of writing and delivering a lengthy speech in Chinese.|
|6||5000||2500||2663||978||50 questions||50 questions||1 composition||Designed for learners who can easily understand any information communicated in Chinese and are capable of smoothly expressing themselves in written or oral form.|
The Listening, Reading and Writing tests each have a maximum score of 100. HSK 1 and 2 therefore have a maximum score of 200 with 120 points required to pass. HSK 3 and 4 have a maximum of 300 points with 180 points required to pass. There is no minimum number of points required for each of the sections as long as the sum is over 120 or 180 points respectively.
HSK 5 and 6 also have a maximum of 300 points and originally required a score of 180 points to pass. However, since a decision made in February 2013, there has been no official passing score for either HSK 5 or 6.
Hanban provides examples of the exam for the different levels together with a list of words that need to be known for each level. These examples are also available (together with the audio for the Listening Test) on the websites of the Confucius Institute at QUT and HSK Academy.
The written version is now available in two forms, a computer and a paper based test. Both tests are still held at test centers, the differences between the two are as follows:
- Not every test center has the facilities for conducting computer-based tests
- Computer-based tests allow you to input characters using the keyboard
- Results of computer-based tests are published two weeks after the exam, paper-based test results take one month
The HSKK test is a separate test. However, the three HSKK levels correspond with the six HSK levels of the written test.
|HSK level||HSKK level||CEFR||Words||Questions||Minutes|
Comparison with CEFR levels
In 2010, Hanban asserted that the HSK's six levels corresponded to the six levels of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). However, the German: 1, 3, 5 and French associations of Chinese language teachers reject this equivalency, arguing that HSK Level 6 is only equivalent to CEFR Level B2 or C1.
|HSK||Estimated CEFR level according to...|
|Level||Words (sum)||Characters (sum)||Hanban||France||Germany||Italy||TOCFL|
|6||5000||2663||C2||B2-C1||B2||B1+ to B2||B2|
|5||2500||1685||C1||B1-B2||B1||A2+ to B1||B1|
|4||1200||1064||B2||A2||A2||A1+ to A2||A2|
|3||600||618||B1||A1-A2||A1||A1.1 to A1.2||A1|
|2||300||348||A2||A1.1||A1.1 (without writing)||A1.1||Below A1|
|1||150||174||A1||Below A1||none||A1.1||Below A1|
|Test Rank (等第)||Vocabulary
|*Generally signifies a professional level.|
**Generally required for non-language academic programs.
Formerly, there were 11 possible ranks (1-11) and 3 test formats (Basic, Elementary/Intermediate, and Advanced). A rank of between 3 and 8 was needed to enroll in a Chinese university, depending on the subject being studied. A score of 9 or higher was a common business standard.
A student taking the Basic test (基础HSK) could attain a rank of 1 through 3 (1级-3级), or fail to meet requirements and thus not receive a rank. The Elementary/Intermediate test (初中等HSK) covered ranks 3-8 (3级-8级), with ranks below 3 not considered. Likewise, the Advanced test (高等HSK) covered ranks 9-11 (9级-11级), with scores below 9 not considered.
The previous format for both Basic and Elementary/Intermediate HSK included four sections: listening comprehension, grammar structures, reading comprehension, and written expressions. Aside from the written expressions portion (which requires writing of Chinese characters), these two tests were completely multiple-choice. The Advanced HSK however, added an additional two portions: spoken and written.
Test dates and locations
The HSK is held at designated test centers in China and abroad. A list of test centers can be found at the HSK website. Test dates are published annually and written tests are more frequently held than spoken ones, generally around once a month, depending on the test center. Test registration is usually open until 30 days prior to the actual test date for the paper-based test or around 10 days prior the actual test date for the computer-based test. Results are generally available around 30 days after completion (but no definite date is given for results).
- Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language – the Chinese language test used in Taiwan
- ZHC – a Chinese language written test intended for native speakers in China
- Putonghua Proficiency Test – a Chinese language oral test intended for native speakers in China
- CTCSOL - Certificate for Teachers of Chinese to Speakers of Other Languages
- List of language proficiency tests
- 汉语水平考试2007年起将增加口语写作, 2006-12-26 www.eol.cn, "The 2007 HSK Revision Will Add Spoken and Writing Portions."
- Official HSK Center Introduction, HSK Center
- "HSK and FAQ". confucius.emory.edu. Retrieved 2019-02-04.
- "《国际中文教育中文水平等级标准》发布 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
- "《国际中文教育中文水平等级标准·语法学习手册（初等）》". www.mp.weixin.qq.com/. Retrieved 2022-04-03.
- "汉考科研君 科研播报｜《等级标准·语法等级大纲》". www.chinesetest.cn. Retrieved 2022-04-03.
- "Почему HSK изменился?". Новый формат HSK в 2022 году. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
- "Il nuovo HSK a 9 livelli - ABCina". Archived from the original on 2020-07-09.
- "China's HSK Language Test to be Overhauled for the First Time in 11 Years". 3 April 2021.
- "2023 New HSK Level Breakdown - Skills required to pass the HSK Exam". blog.tutorabcchinese.com. Retrieved 2023-10-23.
- "Comparing HSK 2.0 and HSK 3.0 - A lot has changed!". blog.tutorabcchinese.com. Retrieved 2023-10-23.
- VibeThemes. "《汉语国际教育汉语水平等级标准》 | HSK 7-9级 | 马来西亚汉语考试服务中心" (in Chinese (China)). Retrieved 2022-05-30.[dead link]
- "汉语水平口语考试(HSKK) - Confucius Institute at Western Michigan University - 西密歇根大学孔子学院". Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Chinese Character Lists by New HSK Level". Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Introduction on New HSK Test". Archived from the original on 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2019-02-04.
- "Chinese Tests_HSK". Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "资源中心--汉语考试服务网". Chinesetest.cn. Retrieved 21 Oct 2023. Link "汉语水平考试（HSK）词汇表（2015版）" https://www.chinesetest.cn/userfiles/file/HSK/HSK-2015.xlsx
- Character lists are not published separately, but can be derived from the published word lists. Character lists
Level 1: 爱八爸杯子北京本不客气菜茶吃出租车打电话大的点脑视影东西都读对起多少儿二饭店飞机分钟高兴个工作狗汉语好号喝和很后面回会几家叫今天九开看见块来老师了冷里六妈吗买猫没关系有米名字明哪那呢能你年女朋友漂亮苹果七前钱请去热人认识三商上午谁什么十时候是书水睡觉说四岁他她太听同学喂我们五喜欢下雨先生现在想小姐些写谢星期习校一衣服医院椅月再怎样这中国住桌昨坐做
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Level 4: 排全按之棒保证抱歉倍笨毕遍标格示演扬饼并博士管仅部擦猜材观餐厅厕江功诚乘惊抽烟厨传窗户粗存误案扮扰印招呼折针概使约戴刀导处底倒登牌低址掉丢堵肚童展律翻译烦恼反弃暑松份丰富否则符合父亲付款负责杂改赶敢速胳膊各资购够估计鼓励挂键众光广播逛规籍际汁程海洋羞寒汗航码适盒悔厚互联怀疑忆活泼获积基础激及即划技术既继续寄油具价坚持减肥建将奖金降落交流通郊区骄傲饺授受释尽紧禁止剧济验精彩景警察竞争竟镜究举拒绝距聚虑烤鸭科棵咳嗽怜惜肯恐苦矿泉困垃圾桶拉辣懒浪费漫虎拜貌厉例俩连凉另利乱麻毛巾美丽梦迷密免秒民族母耐内龄弄暖偶尔队列判断陪批评肤脾篇骗乒乓破葡萄普签敲桥巧克戚况穷取缺却确闹任何扔仍入散森林沙伤量稍微勺社申深甚至命省剩失败傅纪收拾首售货输熟悉帅顺序硕死度塑袋酸随孙台抬态谈弹钢琴汤糖躺趟讨论厌供醒填停挺推脱袜危险卫味温章污染无柿吸引咸羡慕详细橡消伙效辛封奋幸福性修许压呀膏亚洲严研盐养邀钥匙叶页切艺此象赢聘永勇优秀幽默尤由局谊愉与羽言预原谅阅云允志咱暂脏增占线整式支值职植指质围祝贺著专转赚仔尊座
Level 5: 哎唉慰装岸暗熬夜握摆傍裹含括薄宝贝怨背悲领彼避编辑鞭炮辩达凌毒玻璃脖补充布骤财产采访虹踩惭愧操册测曾叉插拆品途抄朝潮湿吵架炒库厢彻沉趁称赞立恳承亏池塘尺翅膀冲器宠屉丑臭版席初夕统帘闯创造吹汇辞刺匆糙促醋催措施喷嚏厦型呆代替贷待纯独耽胆鬼淡挡致岛屿霉德滴敌毯震递钓顶冻洞豆腐逗堆兑吨蹲顿余躲藏恶劣愁抖挥罚繁荣映范妨碍仿佛皂废配析纷斗俗疯狂讽扶幅辅妇制革善盖念脆燥档搞隔壁厂寓恭贡献沟构姑娘古股骨掌固乖拐弯闭官冠军滑临泛归纳矩模柜滚锅庆王敏哈喊豪华核恨猴忽胡壶蝴蝶糊涂裔孕缓幻慌灰尘恢率姻跃柴伴肌烈诊集录寂寞夹庭乡嘉甲设驾驶嫁强肩艰巨兼捡剪筑酱浇胶狡猾训阶触账戒届属谨慎营神救舅桔俱捐均匀幕砍靠颗闲控夸宽昆虫扩椒拦烂朗劳婆鼠姥雷类厘梨润益恋良粮食灵铃域浏览泪龙漏陆轮逻骂麦馒矛盾贸眉媒煤炭魅秘蜜蜂苗描胜迹显令摸摩托陌某木嫩源嗯宁农村浓欧拍派盼培赔偿佩盆碰披疲匹飘拼频衡凭迫企启氛谦虚浅欠枪墙抢悄瞧妙勤青绪趋势娶圈权劝乏群燃绕币忍软弱洒嗓杀漠滩傻晒删闪扇蛇舍射击摄伸升绳略眠诗狮石髦尚践劲兵似卷套寿梳蔬摔甩税丝绸毫私撕搜索宿碎损缩锁拳坦烫逃桃淘殊征倡纲贴挑战痛偷投透土吐兔团荐退歪络返威胁违唯维伟尾巴委屈未置胃柔吻稳卧屋奈谓武勿雾瞎载吓艳县限肠享项链棋销孝歇斜血欣赏形状兄胸叙述宣寻询迅押齿延肃宴痒腰摇咬辈旦依移遗憾乙亿义素英俊雄硬拥挤惠悠犹豫炸幼娱玉订防圆晕灾糟摘窄粘涨召哲珍阵振睁齐政府治挣执疗秩智慧旬猪竹逐渐煮抓饰撞追咨姿紫综裁阻组织醉敬遵守
Level 6: 挨癌症暧昧昂凹凸奥扒疤拔罢霸掰颁斑侣绑榜磅庇袱沧桑姆障仇酬暴露曝爆卑鄙哀惨壳叛诵奔波驰拙崩溃甭迸蹦逼涕喻塞弊端臂疆缘策贬扁迁辨辫彰憋墅扭濒雹丙拨涛剥削伯搏捕捉哺乳堪屑伐署缝谋残疾酷灿仓苍舱纵嘈侧岔刹诧异搀馋缠阐颤昌盛敞畅钞巢穴嘲撤淀闷陈呈挚诺堡惩澄橙秤钝赤沛叠崇稠筹储蓄犯川舶喘串捧炊垂锤粹洁慈祥磁雌伺丛凑鲁窜摧搓磋挫搭猎仗臣肆歹徒怠逮怯诞辰党捣盗窃稻谷罪笼蹬瞪堤坝抵抗颠簸缀垫惦奠叼雕吊跌丁叮嘱盯董荡脉栋兜陡峭督赌杜伍哆嗦堕额遏恩氧碳誓炎番凡殖驳馈滥畴贩御纺禽兽翔沃诽谤肺寝墟沸腾寸裂泌歧吩咐坟墓粉愤怒锋逢奉敷衍俘虏辐抚俯蚀朽副赋予裕腹泻覆钙旱涉尴尬慨岗港湾杠杆峰稿诫疙瘩鸽搁割颂阂抒蒂踪耕攻宫殿巩鸣勾钩孤辜雇佣杖辖贯灌溉罐辉芒阔轨跪棍渡滤瘾嗨滨暄罕捍迈耗呵蔼睦谐嘿痕狠横哼轰烘宏洪哄喉咙吼忧唤啸吁湖泊瓣蕾侨妆添筒患荒谬唐皇帝昏恍悟晃霍煌毁灭晤贿赂荤浑混淆浊箭焰讥饥械吉躁嫉妒忌讳佳肴晓尖锐韧监狱煎拣陋谍剑舰艇踏溅鉴僵桨娇焦侥搅拌缴皆揭奏杰晶截竭剖融津锦晋浸泡茎纬讶兢井颈椎惕纠拘鞠躬咀嚼沮丧瞩倔君辟拓刊勘探侃慷扛拢磕啃坑孔怖惧隙腔扣枯萎泣甘涩挎跨筐旷框捆喇叭蜡烛啦栏惰狼狈吞咽捞牢骚唠叨愣黎碑睬壮粒盟廉晾辽淋吝啬伶俐魂晨袖溜氓聋哑隆垄罩搂炉灶屡履掠夺廓胎坛啰唆绎痹蚂蚁嘛埋伏葬蔓碌盲茫茂枚萌芽猛眯弥惑谜棉疫勉绘瞄渺藐亡蔑捷誉膜磨魔抹莫墨睹沐浴辕辙涵拟逆捏凝拧纽奴隶虐挪哦殴呕趴斥徘徊遣攀旋畔庞抛沫烹饪劈惫倦屁譬偏僻浮撇贫庸屏坡颇魄扑铺朴瀑凄欺协旗袍帜乞丐岂蒙迄掐洽恰徙牵扯逊潜谴劫梁窍翘锲钦侵俭倾澈晰柬帖丘陵曲驱渠缔赴犬陷瘸嚷饶恕惹祸盈眶仁溶揉儒若撒谎嫂啥筛烁擅筋捎梢哨奢侈舌氏呻吟绅圣仙审渗疏肖锈牲畜尸野逝缚竖耍衰涮胞爽泥瞬斯肢寺庙饲惮耸艘苏讼隧塌塔泰贪婪摊瘫痪叹倘掏滔陶瓷汰伦堂田径舔剔剂衅亭滞膨胀缉讯铜掷秃壤拖妥椭唾挖掘哇娃瓦丸顽挽惋妄伪畏蔚雅窝乌诬耻衷赖侠侮辱蹈昔牺溪熄膝袭媳悦菌峡狭隘霞纤掀贤弦衔嫌宪阱馅镇镶嵌巷潇翼携泄郎颖薪仰旺腥刑勃凶汹涌膛绣嗅牧酗喧哗悬崖炫耀霜熏觅巡循抑榨鸦雀淹峻岩沿掩谣遥蛮液帆苟裳仪亦毅擎隐蔽瞒婴恒踊郁腻漆紊稚诱渔愚蠢舆宇宙绒兆欲愈冤枉宵谱岳酝酿蕴熨砸咋栽宰攒遭殃蹋噪贼赠扎渣眨诈债券沾瞻斩钉崭役帐篷蓬沼泽遮侦稀珠斟酌枕撼蒸宗郑撑援柱枝脂肪侄央忠肿瘤舟州粥昼皱纹株诸拄宅驻铸拽砖庄稼卸幢悼坠卓琢滋旨棕廊揍赁挠祖钻唇铭
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- 新HSK为什么要取消合格线 (in Simplified Chinese). 18 December 2013.
从2013年2月起，HSK（五级）、HSK（六级）取消了合格线，参加这两个等级考试的考生，获得的成绩报告中删除了"总分180分为合格（Passing Score: 180）"的字样。
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- HSK Test Frequently Asked Questions
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- Bellassen, Joël (2011). "Is Chinese Europcompatible? Is the Common European Framework Common?: The Common European Framework of References for Languages Facing Distant Language". New Prospect for Foreign Language Teaching in Higher Education —Exploring the Possibilities of Application of CECR—. Tokyo: World Language and Society Education Center (WoLSEC). pp. 23–31. ISBN 978-4-925243-85-8.
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CEFR 華語文能力測驗 TOCFL 新漢語水平考試 HSK 通過等級 詞彙量 通過等級 詞彙量 under A1 - - 一級 150 二級 300 A1 Level 1 入門級 500 三級 600 A2 Level 2 基礎級 1000 四級 1200 B1 Level 3 進階級 2500 五級 2500 B2 Level 4 高階級 5000 六級 5000及以上 C1 Level 5 流利級 8000 - - C2 Level 6 精通級 8000以上
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- ohne Schriftzeichenkenntnisse
- "HSK Level I", chinesetest.cn, Hanban, archived from the original on 13 January 2019, retrieved 12 October 2017,
It is the counterpart of the Level I of the Chinese Language Proficiency Scales for Speakers of Other Languages and the A1 Level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEF).
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- Exam Centre: Yale-China Chinese Language Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
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